Gastritis, liječenje gastritisa, simptomi gastritisa, dijeta

Što je gastritis

– Gastritis se dijeli na kronični i akutni. Kronični gastritis – upala želučane sluznice – uobičajen je i kod odraslih i kod djece. Uzrok mu je povećana kiselost i Helicobacter pylori infekcija. Prema posljednjim istraživanjima, u prosjeku 80% ljudi na pregledu pronađe Helicobacter (bakteriju Helicobacter). Ali uzrokuje upalu samo u kombinaciji s drugim čimbenicima, poput povećane kiselosti i pothranjenosti.
Kronični gastritis obično se javlja kod ljudi koji jedu nepravilno i uzimaju duge pauze između obroka. Studenti, uredski radnici i ljudi koji rade noćne smjene obično spadaju u ovu kategoriju. Najčešće ljudi odlaze liječniku samo ako postoje prilično izraženi simptomi: bol, mučnina, žgaravica, belching, gorčina u ustima. Ovi se simptomi ne javljaju uvijek u vezi s obrokom, ponekad se javljaju i na prazan stomak i nakon jela. Može se javiti osjećaj prepunog želuca, na što ljudi u početku također ne obraćaju pažnju.

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Akutni gastritis nastaje upotrebom začinjene hrane, agresivnih tekućina, poput kola. Ponekad je upala želučane sluznice vrlo ozbiljna, možda će biti potrebna hospitalizacija u kirurškom odjelu.
Za akutni gastritis postoje predisponirajući čimbenici. Na primjer, nasljednost. Posebno pažljivi na sebe trebali bi biti ljudi čiji su krvni rođaci umrli od raka želuca. Svake godine potrebno je proći gastroskopiju i pregled na Helicobacter pylori. 2005. godine australski liječnici Barry Marshall i Robin Warren dobili su Nobelovu nagradu za fiziologiju ili medicinu za otkriće bakterijske prirode gastritisa, čir na želucu i dvanaesniku. Dokazali su da je infekcija Helicobacter pylori primarna kada se pojavi gastritis, a kronična upala može promijeniti stanice želuca tako da se pojave stanice raka.

Postoje i druge vrste gastritisa koje su rjeđe – to su autoimune vrste, javljaju se u okviru glavne autoimune bolesti: sistemski eritematozni lupus, reumatoidni artritis, autoimuni procesi na sluznici želuca i crijeva. Druga rijetka vrsta je alergijski gastritis, iako se posljednjih godina sve češće pojavljuje. To je zbog činjenice da mnogi ljudi imaju alergiju na hranu, a upravo je želudac taj koji se prije svega susreće s alergenom na hranu. Kao rezultat toga, postoji oteklina i upala.

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